Marxist conceptions of imperialism as something systemically connected to the capitalist mode of production have focused on examining how the fundamental tendencies of the capitalist mode express themselves concretely in history when the necessary accompaniment of the mode—a class state—is national. Actual living capitalism has never, even in the contemporary age of globalization, been characterized by either a simple and uniform worldwide division of society into the two fundamental classes of the capitalist mode or a single world capitalist state. Neither has capitalist development ever been anywhere a process confined within national economies. Capitalism in fact created a world economy but through a process in which the conquest of territories and regions outside the initial centres of capitalist emergence completed the job of bringing them into the fold of capitalism long before the potential alternative route of their independent transitions to capitalism could even take off—thus creating the hierarchical division of the world into advanced and backward parts.
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